May 15, Author: See Etiology and Workup, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. Although superficial thrombophlebitis usually occurs in the lower extremities, it also has been described in the penis and the breast Mondor disease. Superficial thrombophlebitis can also develop anywhere that medical interventions occur, such as in the arm or neck external jugular vein when intravenous IV catheters are used.
See Etiology, Presentation, and Workup. Thrombosis and thrombophlebitis of the superficial venous system receive little attention in medical and surgical textbooks. However, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, thrombophlebitis is encountered frequently Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, although it is usually a benign, self-limiting disease, it can be recurrent and tenaciously persistent, at times causing significant incapacitation.
See Epidemiology and Prognosis. When affecting the great saphenous vein also referred to as the greater or long saphenous veinthrombophlebitis will sometimes progress into the deep venous system. Damage to deep venous valves leads to chronic deep venous insufficiency often referred to as postphlebitic syndromeThrombophlebitis Thrombose, as well as to recurrent pulmonary embolism PE and an increased risk of death, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose.
Superficial thrombophlebitis can occur spontaneously, especially in the lower extremities in the great saphenous vein, or as a complication of medical or surgical interventions. Although the etiology is frequently obscure, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, superficial venous thrombosis is most often associated with one of the components of the Virchow triad; ie, intimal damage which can result from trauma, infection, or inflammationstasis or turbulent flow, or changes in blood constituents presumably causing increased coagulability.
In each type of superficial thrombophlebitis, the condition presents as redness and tenderness along the course of the vein, usually accompanied by swelling, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. Bleeding also can occur at the site of a varicose vein, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. Although unusual, superficial thrombophlebitis may occur in the lesser saphenous vein, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, which empties into the popliteal vein.
Superficial thrombophlebitis can also occur in the external jugular vein, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, if it has been used for an infusion site. Superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremities usually occurs at infusion sites or sites of trauma.
Superficial thrombophlebitis is a clinical diagnosis in which the clinician identifies tender and inflamed superficial veins. However, ruling out DVT in the clinical setting is difficult; further testing is often required to evaluate for this condition.
See Presentation and Workup. Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis is aimed at patient comfort and at preventing superficial phlebitis from involving the deep veins, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. See Thrombophlebitis Thrombose and Medication. Superficial phlebitis with infection, such as phlebitis originating at an IV catheter site, is referred to as septic thrombophlebitisa clinical entity requiring diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that are different from those applied to sterile phlebitis.
Microscopic thrombosis is a normal part of the dynamic balance of hemostasis. Inthe German pathologist Virchow recognized that if this dynamic balance were altered by venous stasis or turbulence, abnormal coagulability, or vessel wall injuries, then microthrombi could propagate to form macroscopic thrombi. In the absence of a triggering event, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, neither venous stasis nor abnormal coagulability alone causes clinically important thrombosis, but vascular endothelial injury does reliably result in thrombus formation.
The initiating injury triggers an inflammatory response that results in immediate platelet adhesion at the injury site. Further platelet aggregation is mediated by Thrombophlebitis Thrombose A2 TxA2 and by thrombin. A more detailed visual of the coagulation pathway can be seen in the image below. Platelet aggregation due to TxA2 is inhibited irreversibly by aspirin and reversibly by other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs ; thrombin-mediated platelet aggregation, on the other hand, is not affected by NSAIDs, including aspirin.
This is why aspirin and other NSAIDs are Thrombophlebitis Thrombose effective in preventing arterial thrombosis, where platelet aggregation is mediated via TxA2, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, as seen in patients with stroke and myocardial infarction, but are not very effective in preventing venous thrombophlebitis, where it is believed Thrombophlebitis Thrombose clot formation is more of a result of thrombin activation.
The most important clinically identifiable risk factors for thrombophlebitis are a prior history of superficial phlebitis, DVT, and PE, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. Some common risk markers include recent surgery or pregnancy, prolonged immobilization, and underlying malignancy.
Phlebitis also occurs in diseases associated with vasculitis, such as polyarteritis nodosa periarteritis nodosa and Buerger disease thromboangiitis obliterans. The increased likelihood of developing thrombophlebitis occurs through most of pregnancy and for approximately 6 Thrombophlebitis Thrombose after delivery. This is partly due to increased platelet stickiness and partly due to reduced fibrinolytic activity. The association between pregnancy and thrombophlebitis is Betrieb für Varikosis Thromben particular concern to women who carry the factor V Leiden or prothrombin Ca gene, because they already have a predisposition to clotting, which would also be exacerbated by pregnancy.
Thrombophlebitis Thrombose estrogen therapy is another risk factor. Case-controlled and cohort studies based on Thrombophlebitis Thrombose signs and symptoms of thrombosis suggest that by taking high-estrogen oral contraceptives, a woman may increase her wie Sie wissen, wenn die Krampfadern Hoden of thrombosis by a factor of times, though the absolute risk remains low.
Newer low-dose oral contraceptives are associated with a much lower risk of thrombophlebitis, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, though the absolute risk has not been well quantified. Superficial venous thrombosis following an injury usually occurs in an extremity, manifesting as a tender cord along the course of a vein juxtaposing the area of trauma. Ecchymosis may be present early in the disease, indicating extravasation of blood associated with injury to the vein; this may turn to brownish pigmentation over the vein as the inflammation resolves.
Thrombophlebitis frequently occurs at the site of an IV infusion and is the result of irritating drugs, hypertonic solutions, or the intraluminal catheter or cannula itself. This is by far the most common Thrombophlebitis Thrombose of thrombophlebitis encountered.
Usually, redness and pain signal its presence while the infusion is being given, but thrombosis may manifest as a small lump days or weeks after the infusion apparatus has been removed.
It may take months to completely resolve. The features of iatrogenic form of traumatic chemical phlebitis may be deliberately produced by sclerotherapy during the treatment of varicose veins. Superficial thrombophlebitis frequently occurs in varicose veins, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. It Thrombophlebitis Thrombose extend Thrombophlebitis Thrombose and down Thrombophlebitis Thrombose saphenous vein or may remain confined to a cluster of tributary varicosities away from the main saphenous vein, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose.
Although thrombophlebitis may follow trauma to a varix, it often occurs in varicose veins without an antecedent cause. Thrombophlebitis in a varicose vein develops as a tender, hard knot and is frequently surrounded by erythema. At times, bleeding may occur as the reaction extends through the vein wall. It frequently is observed in varicose veins surrounding Lungenembolie Bilder stasis ulcers.
Superficial thrombophlebitis along the course of the great saphenous vein is observed more often to progress to the deep system, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. Infection-related thrombophlebitis is associated with several different conditions, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, including a serious complication of intravascular cannulation and can be suspected in patients who have persistent bacteremia in the setting of appropriate antibiotic therapy.
It also frequently is associated with septicemia. InDeTakats suggested that dormant infection in varicose veins was a factor in the development of thrombophlebitis occurring following operations or after injection treatments, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, trauma, or exposure to radiation therapy. Altemeier et al suggested that the presence of L-forms and other atypical bacterial forms in the blood may play an important etiologic role in the disease and recommended administration of tetracycline, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose.
Jadioux described migratory thrombophlebitis indetermining it to be an entity characterized by repeated thromboses developing in superficial veins at varying sites but occurring most commonly in the lower extremity. Although numerous etiologic factors have been proposed for this condition, none have been confirmed. The association of carcinoma with migratory thrombophlebitis was first reported by Trousseau, in Sproul noted migratory thrombophlebitis to be especially prevalent Thrombophlebitis Thrombose carcinoma of the tail of the pancreas.
Mondor disease is a rare condition, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. Thrombophlebitis is usually located in the anterolateral aspect of the upper portion of the breast or in the region extending from the lower portion of the breast across the submammary fold toward the costal margin and the epigastrium. A characteristic finding is a tender, cordlike structure that may be best demonstrated by tensing the skin via elevation of the arm. The cause of Mondor disease is unknown, but a search for malignancy is indicated.
Mondor disease is more likely to occur after breast Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, with the use of oral contraceptives, and with protein C deficiency. Thrombophlebitis Thrombophlebitis Thrombose the dorsal vein Thrombophlebitis Thrombose the penis, generally caused by trauma Thrombophlebitis Thrombose repetitive injury, is also referred to as Mondor disease.
In the author's experience, superficial thrombophlebitis most frequently occurs in the Thrombophlebitis Thrombose group ranging from young adulthood to middle age.
However, Markovic et al reported that a common risk factor is age older than 60 years, though fewer complications occur in this age group. As previously mentioned, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, pregnancy, puerperium, and high-dose estrogen therapy are recognized risk factors for phlebitis.
However, there are no intrinsic, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, sex-linked risks Thrombophlebitis Thrombose the disease. The prognosis in superficial thrombophlebitis is usually good, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. Superficial phlebitis is rarely associated with PE, although it can occur, particularly if the process extends into a deep vein.
However, individuals with superficial venous thrombosis do not seem to have a great tendency to develop DVT. In contrast, patients with DVT are frequently found to have superficial venous thrombosis, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. The patient should be told to expect the disease process to Thrombophlebitis Thrombose for weeks or longer. If it occurs in the lower extremity in association with varicose veins, it has a high likelihood of recurrence unless excision is performed. Because thrombophlebitis tends to recur if the vein has not been excised, instructing the patient in ways to prevent stasis in the vein is usually advisable, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose.
The use of elastic stockings may be indicated, especially if the patient plans to stand in an upright position for long periods. Slight elevation of the foot of the bed, avoidance of long periods of standing in an upright position, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, and avoidance of prolonged inactivity is recommended. An unexpectedly high rate of pulmonary embolism in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the thigh.
The veins in thromboangiitis obliterans: Thrombophlebitis Thrombose particular reference to arteriovenous anastomosis as a cure for the condition. Pathology, Diagnosis and Treatment. University of Nagoya Press; Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. Vasculopathy related to cocaine adulterated with levamisole: A review of the literature, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose.
Skin necrosis and venous thrombosis from subcutaneous injection of charcoal lighter fluid naptha. Am J Thrombophlebitis Thrombose Med. Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of intravascular catheter-related infection: Am J Med Sci. Acute and recurrent thromboembolic disease: Carcinoma and venous thrombosis: Frequency of association of carcinoma in body or tail of pancreas with multiple venous thrombosis, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. Nazir SS, Khan M.
Thrombosis of the dorsal vein of the penis Mondor's Disease:
Superficial venous thrombophlebitis
Superficial thrombophlebitis is inflammation of a vein just under the skin, usually in the leg, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. A small blood clot also commonly forms in the vein, but is usually not serious. The condition usually settles and goes within weeks.
Treatments can ease pain or discomfort, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. Superficial thrombophlebitis is different to, and much less serious than, deep vein thrombosis DVT. However, in a small number of cases, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, complications can occur with superficial thrombophlebitis, including extension of the blood clot further up the vein. If the clot extends to where the superficial and deep, larger veins join, a DVT can develop.
A vein is a blood vessel that takes blood towards the heart. If a vein becomes inflamed, a blood clot commonly forms inside the inflamed portion, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. So, the term thrombophlebitis is used to mean an inflamed vein, with or without a small blood clot inside the vein. Thrombophlebitis is commonly just called phlebitis. The superficial veins are the ones that you can often see or feel just under the skin. Most bouts of superficial thrombophlebitis occur in a leg vein.
However, any superficial vein can be affected. A Maisseide von Krampfadern site is in a varicose vein in a leg. Varicose veins are common, particularly in pregnant women. Superficial thrombophlebitis is not usually serious but complications can sometimes occur see below. The deep veins are larger, pass through the muscles in your arms and legs and you cannot see or feel them.
Some people get confused between superficial thrombophlebitis and deep vein thrombosis DVT, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. They are quite different. A DVT is more Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. See separate leaflet called Deep Vein Thrombosis for more detail.
Many cases occur for no apparent reason. A slight injury to the vein may trigger the inflammation in some cases, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. There are a number of risk factors that make it more likely for inflammation to develop in a vein:. Swelling, redness and tenderness along a part of the vein are the usual symptoms. Thrombophlebitis Thrombose may develop a high temperature fever.
If a blood clot develops inside the inflamed part of the vein, the vein may then feel hard or knobbly. The blood clot is usually of little concern, as it is small.
There are other veins which carry the blood and bypass the blocked vein. When the inflammation settles, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, a persistent darker area of skin hyperpigmentation may remain over the affected vein.
A small firm lump may also persist below the skin. This may be tender to the touch for some time. Your doctor is usually able to diagnose superficial thrombophlebitis by talking to you and examining the affected area.
Investigations are not usually needed, especially if you have one of the risk factors for superficial thrombophlebitis see above. However, if your Krampf Brücke is concerned that you may have a DVT see belowthey may advise that you have some tests to exclude this. This usually means a special ultrasound scan of the affected area to look for any clots in the deep veins. If you have Thrombophlebitis Thrombose bouts of thrombophlebitis, especially if you have no real risk factors for superficial thrombophlebitis, your doctor may suggest some tests to check that you do not have any problems with the clotting of your blood.
They may also suggest other tests to look for more rare causes of recurrent superficial thrombophlebitis see below. Most bouts of superficial thrombophlebitis last for weeks. If they are associated with varicose veins, they are likely to return recur. No treatment may be needed if the symptoms are mild. One or more of the following treatments may be advised, depending on your symptoms and the severity of the condition:.
If your doctor feels that you may have a DVT or be at high risk of developing one, they may suggest that you are referred either to the hospital or to a special DVT clinic. This will Thrombophlebitis Thrombose you to have any investigations or treatment necessary see above, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. Sometimes, prophylactic just in case treatment may be given to people who have superficial thrombophlebitis and may be at high risk of developing a DVT.
This involves injection of a medicine to thin the blood. The inflammation and pain usually settle within a few weeks. Most people make a full recovery, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose.
The possible complications listed below are uncommon, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. They are listed, however, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, to give guidance on what to look out for, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. See a Thrombophlebitis Thrombose as soon as possible if you Thrombophlebitis Thrombose that a complication is developing. Sometimes the affected vein becomes infected.
The pain may then become worse and the redness spreads. You are likely to feel generally unwell. Infection is more common in someone who has had a drip inserted for a long period, in people who abuse 'street drugs' or in people with a weakened immune system.
Antibiotics are needed to treat the infection. If Thrombophlebitis Thrombose infection is severe, you may need to be Thrombophlebitis Thrombose to hospital for antibiotics given directly into a vein. Rarely, infection in a vein becomes severe and may spread to other areas of the body. In some cases, the blood clot can extend further up the vein. If the clot extends to where the Thrombophlebitis Thrombose and deep veins join, a DVT can develop.
This Thrombophlebitis Thrombose more likely if the superficial thrombophlebitis is in the upper thigh or the groin, near to where the superficial veins and the deep veins of the leg meet.
There is a similar meeting point of superficial and deep veins at the crease behind the knee. It is also more likely to occur:. When a DVT leads to thrombophlebitis, there is an increased risk of developing further DVTs and possibly clots on the lung pulmonary embolism. It is common for people with varicose veins to have repeated recurrent bouts of superficial thrombophlebitis, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose.
However, for a small number of people this may be the first sign of a more serious condition. For example, cancer or a rare condition called polyarteritis Thrombophlebitis Thrombose in which there is patchy inflammation of the walls of the arteries. This is more likely if the bouts occur at different sites, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose, or in different veins in someone without varicose veins.
Tests may be advised if there is no obvious explanation for recurring bouts of superficial thrombophlebitis. Did you find this information useful? Cochrane Database Syst Rev. I had gotten sick beginning of marchstarted with shortness of breath, then slowly started progressing, mind you at this time i was smoking meth never injected Thrombophlebitis Thrombose symptoms from march up This article is for information only and should not be used for the diagnosis or treatment of medical conditions.
In this article arrow-down What is thrombophlebitis? Superficial Thrombophlebitis In this article What is thrombophlebitis? What is superficial thrombophlebitis? What causes superficial thrombophlebitis? What are the symptoms of superficial thrombophlebitis? Do I need any investigations? What is the treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis? Are there any complications from superficial thrombophlebitis? Phlebitis means inflammation of Thrombophlebitis Thrombose vein.
Thrombo sis means a blood clot in a vein. Why not subcribe to the newsletter? We would love to hear your feedback! Subscribe to our newsletter. Further reading and references, Thrombophlebitis Thrombose. Join the discussion on the forums. Health Tools Feeling unwell? Assess your symptoms online with our free symptom checker.
Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis
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Thrombophlebitis is a swollen or inflamed vein due to a blood clot. Superficial refers to veins just below the skin’s surface.
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Superficial thrombophlebitis is inflammation of a vein just under the skin, usually in the leg. A small blood clot also commonly forms in the vein, but.
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Superficial thrombophlebitis is inflammation of a vein just under the skin, usually in the leg. A small blood clot also commonly forms in the vein, but.
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Synonyms for thrombophlebitis in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for thrombophlebitis. 1 word related to thrombophlebitis: phlebitis. What are synonyms for thrombophlebitis?
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Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel, when a thrombus forms, it is thrombophlebitis: Mechanism Pathogenesis The main.